LEAK(1)                                                   LEAK(1)

          leak, kmem, umem - help find memory leaks

          leak [ -abcds ] [ -f binary ] [ -r res ] [ -x width ] pid

          kmem [ kernel ]

          umem pid [ textfile ]

          Leak examines the named processes, which should be sharing
          their data and bss segments, for memory leaks.  It uses a
          mark and sweep-style algorithm to determine which allocated
          blocks are no longer reachable from the set of root point-
          ers.  The set of root pointers is created by looking through
          the shared bss segment as well as each process's registers.

          Unless directed otherwise, leak prints, for each block, a
          line with seven space-separated fields: the string block,
          the address of the block, the size of the block, the first
          two words of the block, and the function names represented
          by the first two words of the block.  Usually, the first two
          words of the block contain the malloc and realloc tags (see
          malloc(2)), useful for finding who allocated the leaked

          If the -s or the -c option is given, leak will instead pre-
          sent a sequence of acid(1) commands that show each leaky
          allocation site.  With -s a comment appears next to each
          command to indicate how many lost blocks were allocated at
          that point in the program.  With -c the comments are
          extended to indicate also the total number of bytes lost at
          that point in the program, and an additional comment line
          gives the overall total number of bytes.

          If the -a option is given, leak will print information as
          decribed above, but for all allocated blocks, not only
          leaked ones.  If the -d option is given, leak will print
          information as decribed above, but for all free blocks, i.e.
          those freed, or those that are not yet in use (fragmenta-
          tion?).  The -a and -d options can be combined.

          If the -b option is given, leak will print a Plan 9 image
          file graphically summarizing the memory arenas.  In the
          image, each pixel represents res (default 8) bytes.  The
          color code is:

          dark blue     Completely allocated.

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     LEAK(1)                                                   LEAK(1)

          bright blue   Contains malloc headers.

          bright red    Contains malloc headers for leaked memory.

          dark red      Contains leaked memory.

          yellow        Completely free

          white         Padding to fill out the image.  The bright
                        pixels representing headers help in counting
                        the number of blocks.  Magnifying the images
                        with lens(1) is often useful.

          If given a name rather than a list of process ids, leak
          echoes back a command-line with process ids of every process
          with that name.

          The -f option specifies a binary to go on the acid(1)
          command-line used to inspect the processes, and is only nec-
          essary when inspecting processes started from stripped bina-

          Umem prints a summary of all allocated blocks in the process
          with id pid. Each line of the summary gives the count and
          total size of blocks allocated at an allocation point.  The
          list is sorted by count in decreasing order.  Umem prints
          summarizes all allocations, not just memory leaks, but it is
          faster and requires less memory than leak .

          Kmem is like umem but prints a summary for the running ker-

          List lost blocks in 8.out. This depends on the fact that
          there is only one instance of 8.out running; if there were
          more, the output of leak -s 8.out would need editing before
          sending to the shell.

               % leak -s 8.out
               leak -s 229 230
               % leak -s 8.out | rc
               src(0x0000bf1b); // 64
               src(0x000016f5); // 7
               src(0x0000a988); // 7

          View the memory usage graphic for the window system.

               % leak -b rio | rc | page

          List the top allocation points in the kernel, first by count
          and then by total size:

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     LEAK(1)                                                   LEAK(1)

               % kmem | sed 10q
               % kmem | sort -nr +1 | sed 10q


          getcallerpc(2), setmalloctag in malloc(2)

          Leak and kmem depend on the internal structure of the libc
          pool memory allocator (see pool(2)). Since the ANSI/POSIX
          environment uses a different allocator, leak will not work
          on APE programs.

          Leak is not speedy, and acidleak can consume more memory
          than the process(es) being examined.

          These commands require /sys/src/libc/port/pool.acid to be
          present and generated from pool.c.

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