PLAN9.INI(8)                                         PLAN9.INI(8)

          plan9.ini - configuration file for PCs


          When booting Plan 9 on a PC, the bootloader program 9boot(8)
          first reads configuration information from a file on the
          boot media.  This file, plan9.ini, looks like a shell script
          containing lines of the form


          each of which defines a kernel or device parameter.

          Blank lines and Carriage Returns (\r) are ignored.  # com-
          ments are ignored, but are only recognised if `#' appears at
          the start of a line.

          For devices, the generic format of value is

               type=TYPE [port=N] [irq=N] [mem=N] [size=N] [dma=N] [ea=N]

          specifying the controller type, the base I/O port of the
          interface, its interrupt level, the physical starting
          address of any mapped memory, the length in bytes of that
          memory, the DMA channel, and for Ethernets an override of
          the physical network address.  Not all elements are relevant
          to all devices; the relevant values and their defaults are
          defined below in the description of each device.

          The file is used by the kernel to configure the hardware
          available.  The information it contains is also passed to
          the boot process, and subsequently other programs, as envi-
          ronment variables (see boot(8)). However, values whose names
          begin with an asterisk * are used by the kernel and are not
          converted into environment variables.

          The following sections describe how variables are used.

          This defines an Ethernet interface.  X, a unique monotoni-
          cally increasing number beginning at 0, identifies an Ether-
          net card to be probed at system boot.  Probing stops when a
          card is found or there is no line for etherX+1.  After prob-
          ing as directed by the etherX lines, any remaining Ethernet
          cards that can be automatically detected are added.  Almost
          all cards can be automatically detected.  For debugging

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          purposes, automatic probing can be disabled by specifying
          the line *noetherprobe=.

          Some cards are software configurable and do not require all
          options.  Unspecified options default to the factory

          Known TYPEs are

          igbe    The Intel 8254X Gigabit Ethernet controllers, as
                  found on the Intel PRO/1000 adapters for copper (not
                  fiber).  Completely configurable.

                  The Intel 8256[36], 8257[12], and 82573[ev] Gigabit
                  Ethernet PCI-Express controllers.  Completely con-

          rtl8169 The Realtek 8169 Gigabit Ethernet controller.  Com-
                  pletely configurable.

          ga620   Netgear GA620 and GA620T Gigabit Ethernet cards, and
                  other cards using the Alteon Acenic chip such as the
                  Alteon Acenic fiber and copper cards, the DEC
                  DEGPA-SA and the SGI Acenic.  Completely config-

          dp83820 National Semiconductor DP83820-based Gigabit Ether-
                  net adapters, notably the D-Link DGE-500T.  Com-
                  pletely configurable.

          vgbe    The VIA Velocity Gigabit Ethernet controller.  Known
                  to drive the VIA8237 (ABIT AV8), but at 100Mb/s
                  full-duplex only.

          m10g    The Myricom 10-Gigabit Ethernet 10G-PCIE-8A con-
                  troller.  Completely configurable.  Can't boot
                  through these due to enormous firmware loads.

          i82598  The Intel 8259[89] 10-Gigabit Ethernet PCI-Express
                  controllers.  Completely configurable.

          i82557  Cards using the Intel 8255[789] Fast Ethernet PCI
                  Bus LAN Controller such as the Intel EtherExpress
                  PRO/100B.  Completely configurable, no options need
                  be given.  If you need to force the media, specify
                  one of the options (no value) 10BASE-T, 10BASE-2,
                  10BASE-5, 100BASE-TX, 10BASE-TFD, 100BASE-TXFD,
                  100BASE-T4, 100BASE-FX, or 100BASE-FXFD.  Completely

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          2114x   Cards using the Digital Equipment (now Intel) 2114x
                  PCI Fast Ethernet Adapter Controller, for example
                  the Netgear FA310.  Completely configurable, no
                  options need be given.  Media can be specified the
                  same was as for the i82557.  Some cards using the
                  PNIC and PNIC2 near-clone chips may also work.

          83815   National Semiconductor DP83815-based adapters,
                  notably the Netgear FA311, Netgear FA312, and vari-
                  ous SiS built-in controllers such as the SiS900.  On
                  the SiS controllers, the Ethernet address is not
                  detected properly; specify it with an ea= attribute.
                  Completely configurable.

          rtl8139 The Realtek 8139 Fast Ethernet controller.  Com-
                  pletely configurable.

          vt6102  The VIA VT6102 Fast Ethernet Controller (Rhine II).

                  SMC 91cXX chip-based PCMCIA adapters, notably the
                  SMC EtherEZ card.

          elnk3   The 3COM Etherlink III series of cards including the
                  5x9, 59x, and 905 and 905B.  Completely config-
                  urable, no options need be given.  The media may be
                  specified by setting media= to the value 10BaseT,
                  10Base2, 100BaseTX, 100BaseFX, aui, and mii.  If you
                  need to force full duplex, because for example the
                  Ethernet switch does not negotiate correctly, just
                  name the word (no value) fullduplex or 100BASE-TXFD.
                  Similarly, to force 100Mbit operation, specify
                  force100.  Port 0x110 is used for the little ISA
                  configuration dance.

          3c589   The 3COM 3C589 series PCMCIA cards, including the
                  3C562 and the 589E.  There is no support for the
                  modem on the 3C562.  Completely configurable, no
                  options need be given.  Defaults are
                       port=0x240 irq=10
                  The media may be specified as media=10BaseT or

          ec2t    The Linksys Combo PCMCIA EthernetCard (EC2T), Ether-
                  Fast 10/100 PCMCIA cards (PCMPC100) and integrated
                  controllers (PCM100), the Netgear FA410TX 10/100
                  PCMCIA card and the Accton EtherPair-PCMCIA
                  (EN2216).  Completely configurable, no options need
                  be given.  Defaults are
                       port=0x300 irq=9
                  These cards are NE2000 clones.  Other NE2000 compat-
                  ible PCMCIA cards may be tried with the option

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                  where string is a unique identifier string contained
                  in the attribute memory of the card (see pcmcia(8));
                  unlike most options in plan9.ini, this string is
                  case-sensitive.  The option dummyrr=[01] can be used
                  to turn off (0) or on (1) a dummy remote read in the
                  driver in such cases, depending on how NE2000 com-
                  patible they are.

          ne2000  Not software configurable iff ISA; PCI clones or
                  supersets are software configurable; includes the
                  Realtek 8029 clone used by Parallels.  16-bit card.
                  Defaults are
                       port=0x300 irq=2 mem=0x04000 size=0x4000
                  The option (no value) nodummyrr is needed on some
                  (near) clones to turn off a dummy remote read in the

                  The AMD PCnet PCI Ethernet Adapter (AM79C970).
                  (This is the Ethernet adapter used by VMware.)  Com-
                  pletely configurable, no options need be given.

          wd8003  Includes WD8013 and SMC Elite and Elite Ultra cards.
                  There are varying degrees of software configurabil-
                  ity. Cards may be in either 8-bit or 16-bit slots.
                  Defaults are
                       port=0x280 irq=3 mem=0xD0000 size=0x2000
                  BUG: On many machines only the 16 bit card works.

          bcm     Broadcom BCM57xx Gigabit Ethernet controllers.  Com-
                  pletely configurable, no options need be given.

          yuk     Marvell 88e8057 Yukon2 Gigabit Ethernet controller.
                  Completely configurable, no options need be given.

          virtio  Virtual Ethernet interface provided by QEMU/KVM and
                  VirtualBox.  No options need be given. The MAC
                  address can be changed with the ea= option.

          sink    A /dev/null for Ethernet packets - the interface
                  discards sent packets and never receives any.  This
                  is used to provide a test bed for some experimental
                  Ethernet bridging software.

          wavelan Lucent Wavelan (Orinoco) IEEE 802.11b and compatible
                  PCMCIA cards.  Compatible cards include the Dell
                  TrueMobile 1150 and the Linksys Instant Wireless
                  Network PC Card.  Port and IRQ defaults are 0x180
                  and 3 respectively.

                  These cards take a number of unique options to aid

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                  in identifying the card correctly on the 802.11b
                  network.  The network may be ad hoc or managed (i.e.
                  use an access point):
                       mode=[adhoc, managed]
                  and defaults to managed. The 802.11b network to
                  attach to (managed mode) or identify as (ad hoc
                  mode), is specified by
                  and defaults to a null string.  The card station
                  name is given by
                  and defaults to Plan 9 STA. The channel to use is
                  given by
                  where number lies in the range 1 to 16 inclusive;
                  the channel is normally negotiated automatically.

                  If the card is capable of encryption, the following
                  options may be used:
                       crypt=[off, on]
                  and defaults to on.
                  sets the encryption key N (where N is in the range 1
                  to 4 inclusive) to string; this will also set the
                  transmit key to N (see below).  There are two for-
                  mats for string which depend on the length of the
                  string.  If it is exactly 5 or 13 characters long it
                  is assumed to be an alphanumeric key; if it is
                  exactly 10 or 26 characters long the key is assumed
                  to be in hex format (without a leading 0x). The
                  lengths are checked, as is the format of a hex key.
                  sets the transmit key to use to be number in the
                  range 1 to 4 inclusive.  If it is desired to exclude
                  or include unencrypted packets
                       clear=[off, on]
                  configures reception and defaults to inclusion.

                  The defaults are intended to match the common case
                  of a managed network with encryption and a typical
                  entry would only require, for example
                       essid=left-armpit key1=afish key2=calledraawaru
                  if the port and IRQ defaults are used.  These
                  options may be set after boot by writing to the
                  device's ctl file using a space as the separator
                  between option and value, e.g.
                       echo 'key2 1d8f65c9a52d83c8e4b43f94af' >/net/ether0/0/ctl

                  Card-specific power management may be
                  enabled/disabled by
                       pm=[on, off]

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                  PCI Ethernet adapters that use the same Wavelan pro-
                  gramming interface.  Currently the only tested cards
                  are those based on the Intersil Prism 2.5 chipset.

          iwl     Intel Wireless WiFi Link mini PCI-Express adapters
                  require firmware from
                  to be present on attach in /lib/firmware or /boot.
                  To limit the selected APs the options essid= and
                  bssid= may be set at boot or in the ether interface
                  clone file using a space as the separator between
                  option and value, e.g.
                       echo essid left-armpit >/net/ether1/clone
                  Scan results appear in the ifstats file and can be
                  read out like:
                       cat /net/ether1/ifstats
                  Ad-hoc mode or WEP encryption is currently not sup-

          rt2860  Ralink Technology PCI/PCI-Express wireless adapters
                  require firmware from
                  to be present on attach in /lib/firmware or /boot.
                  See iwl section above for configuration details.

          wpi     Intel PRO Wireless 3945abg PCI/PCI-Express wireless
                  adapters require firmware from
                  to be present on attach in /lib/firmware or /boot.
                  See iwl section above for configuration details.

          WPA/WPA2 encryption is detected automatically and a prompt
          for the password will appear when using the WIFI interface
          for netbooting.  To avoid the prompt, the password can be
          specified with the boot parameter above.

          Disable automatic IPv6 configuration from incoming router

        DISKS, TAPES
          (S)ATA controllers are autodetected.

          disables dma on ata devices.

          explicitly enables dma on a specific ata device.


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     PLAN9.INI(8)                                         PLAN9.INI(8)

          This defines a SCSI interface which cannot be automatically
          detected by the kernel.

          Known TYPEs are

               Adaptec 154x series of controllers (and clones).
               Almost completely configurable, only the
               option need be given.

          NCR/Symbios/LSI-Logic 53c8xx-based adapters and Mylex Multi-
          Master (Buslogic BT-*) adapters are automatically detected
          and need no entries.

          By default, the NCR 53c8xx driver searches for up to 32 con-
          trollers.  This can be changed by setting the variable

          By default the Mylex driver resets SCSI cards by using both
          the hard reset and SCSI bus reset flags in the driver inter-
          face.  If a variable *noscsireset is defined, the SCSI bus
          reset flag is omitted.

          This specifies a space-separated list of Ethernet interfaces
          to be bound at boot to the ATA-over-Ethernet driver, aoe(3).
          For example, `aoeif=ether0 ether1'.  Only interfaces on this
          list will initially be accessible via AoE.

          This specifies an ATA-over-Ethernet device accessible via
          the interfaces named in aoeif on AoE shelf and slot to use
          as a root device for bootstrapping.

        ramdiskX=size sectorsize
        ramdiskX=address size sectorsize
          This reserves physical memory as a ramdisk that will appear
          as sd(3) device sdZX.  When the address argument is omited
          or zero, then the ramdisk will be allocated from the top of
          physical memory.

          This defines a sound interface. PCI based audio devices such
          as Intel HD audio or AC97 are autodetected and do not
          require any settings.

          Known types are

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          hda      Intel HD audio.

          ac97     AC97 based card.

          sb16     Sound Blaster 16.

          ess1688  A Sound Blaster clone.

          The DMA channel may be any of 5, 6, or 7.  The defaults are

               port=0x220 irq=7 dma=5

          Plan 9 automatically configures COM1 and COM2, if found, as
          eia0 (port 0x3F8, IRQ4) and eia1 (port 0x2F8, IRQ3) respec-
          tively.  These devices can be disabled by adding a line:


          This is typically done in order to reuse the IRQ for another

          Additional i8250 (ISA) uarts (uart2 to uart5) can be config-
          ured using:

               uartX=type=isa port=port irq=irq

          Perle PCI-Fast4, PCI-Fast8, and PCI-Fast16 controllers are
          automatically detected and need no configuration lines.

          The line serial=type=com can be used to specify settings for
          a PCMCIA modem.

          This specifies where the mouse is attached.  Value can be

          ps2  the PS2 mouse/keyboard port.  The BIOS setup procedure
               should be used to configure the machine appropriately.

               an Intellimouse on the PS2 port.

          0    for COM1

          1    for COM2

          Picks the UART line to call out on.  This is used when con-
          necting to a file server over an async line.  Value is the
          number of the port.

        console=value params

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          This is used to specify the console device.  The default
          value is cga; a number 0 or 1 specifies COM1 or COM2 respec-
          tively.  A serial console is initially configured with the
          uart(3) configuration string b9600 l8 pn s1, specifying 9600
          baud, 8 bit bytes, no parity, and one stop bit.  If params
          is given, it will be used to further configure the uart.
          Notice that there is no = sign in the params syntax.  For

               console=0 b19200 po

          would use COM1 at 19,200 baud with odd parity.

          The value net specifies ``netconsole'' which sends console
          messages as UDP packets over the network.  It bypasses the
          IP stack and writes Ethernet packets directly to the NIC.
          In this case params is mandatory and takes the form

               srcip [ !srcport ] [ /devno ] , dstip [ !dstport ] [
               /dstmac ]

          Srcip, srcport (default 6665), dstip and dstport (default
          6666) specify the source IP address, source port, destina-
          tion IP address and destination port, respectively.  Devno
          (default 0) specifies which NIC to use, a value of n corre-
          sponds to NIC at #ln (see ether(3)). Dstmac specifies the
          destination MAC address; broadcast packets are sent if it is
          unspecified.  Note that it is possible, but not recommended,
          to send packets to a host outside the local network by spec-
          ifying the MAC address of the gateway as dstmac.  Example
          lines are


        PC CARD
          Disable probing for and automatic configuration of PC card

        pcmciaX=type=XXX irq=value
          If the default IRQ for the PCMCIA is correct, this entry can
          be omitted.  The value of type is ignored.

          Disable probing for and automatic configuration of PCMCIA

          This is used to direct the actions of 9boot(8) by naming the
          file from which to load the kernel in the current BIOS boot

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     PLAN9.INI(8)                                         PLAN9.INI(8)


          The value of this variable is passed to boot(8) by the ker-
          nel as the name of the root file system to automatically
          mount and boot into.  It is typically used to specify addi-
          tional arguments to pass to cwfs(4) or ipconfig(8). For
          example, if the system is to run from a local cwfs(4) parti-
          tion, the definition might read
          bootargs=local!/dev/sdC0/fscache.  See boot(8) for more.

          Suppress the `bootargs' prompt and use value as the answer

          Changes the mount arguments for the root file server that
          was specified by bootargs above.  By changing dir in
          $rootdir, a different sub-directory on the root file server
          can be used as the system root. see boot(8) for details.

          Suppress the `user' prompt and use value as the answer

          Changes the systems default role. Possible settings for
          value are cpu and terminal.

          Causes boot(8) to start factotum with the -p option, so that
          it can be debugged.

          This gives the name of the file holding the disk partition
          for the cache file system, cfs(4). Extending the bootargs
          example, one would write cfs=#S/sdC0/cache.

          This deprecated variable was used to specify the disk used
          by the cache file system and other disk-resident services.
          It is superseded by bootargs and cfs.

          These specify the network address (IP or domain name) of the
          file, authentication and secstore server to use when mount-
          ing a network-provided root file system.  When not speci-
          fied, then these settings are determined via DHCP.  When
          secstore is not specified, then the authentication server is

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     PLAN9.INI(8)                                         PLAN9.INI(8)


        *e820=type 0xstart 0xend ...
          This variable is automatically generated by the boot loader
          (see 9boot(8)) by doing a BIOS E820 memory scan while still
          in realmode and passed to the kernel. The format is a
          unordered list of decimal region type and hexadecimal 64-bit
          start and end addresses of the area.

          This defines the maximum physical address that the system
          will scan when sizing memory.  By default the PC operating
          system will scan up to 3.75 gigabytes (0xF0000000, the base
          of kernel virtual address space), but setting *maxmem will
          limit the scan.  *maxmem must be less than 3.75 gigabytes.
          This variable is not consulted if using the E820 memory map.

          This defines what percentage of available memory is reserved
          for the kernel allocation pool.  The remainder is left for
          user processes.  The default value is 30 on CPU servers, 60
          on terminals with less than 16MB of memory, and 40 on termi-
          nals with memories of 16MB or more.  Terminals use more ker-
          nel memory because draw(3) maintains its graphic images in
          kernel memory.  This deprecated option is rarely necessary
          in newer kernels.

          This limits the maximum amount of memory (in megabytes) the
          graphics image memory pool can grow. The default is unlim-
          ited for terminals and cpu servers.

          If machine check exceptions are supported by the processor,
          then they are enabled by default.  Setting this variable to
          1 causes them to be disabled even when available.

          A multiprocessor machine will enable all processors by
          default.  Setting *nomp restricts the kernel to starting
          only one processor and using the traditional interrupt con-

          Setting *ncpu restricts the kernel to starting at most value

          Prints a summary of the multiprocessor APIC interrupt con-

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     PLAN9.INI(8)                                         PLAN9.INI(8)

          Disables message signaled interrupts.

          Disables the use of the per processor timestamp counter reg-
          isters as high resolution clock.

          This puts a limit on the maximum bus number probed on a PCI
          bus (default 7).  For example, a value of 1 should suffice
          on a 'standard' motherboard with an AGP slot.  This, and
          *pcimaxdno below are rarely used and only on troublesome or
          suspect hardware.

          This puts a limit on the maximum device number probed on a
          PCI bus (default 31).

          Disable pci routing during boot.  May solve interrupt rout-
          ing problems on certain machines.

          Prints a summary of the detected PCI busses and devices.

          Disable printing a stack dump on panic.  Useful if there is
          only a limited cga screen available, otherwise the textual
          information about the panic may scroll off.

          Specifies a list of ranges of I/O ports to exclude from use
          by drivers.  Ranges are inclusive on both ends and separated
          by commas.  For example:

          Specifies a list of ranges of UMB to exclude from use by
          drivers.  Ranges are inclusive on both ends and separated by
          commas.  For example:

          The presence of this option enables ACPI and the export of
          the #P/acpitbls file in arch(3) device. In multiprocessor
          mode, the kernel will use the ACPI tables to configure APIC
          interrupts unless a value of 0 is specified.

          This enables the ``advanced power management'' interface as
          described in apm(3) and apm(8). The main feature of the
          interface is the ability to watch battery life (see

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     PLAN9.INI(8)                                         PLAN9.INI(8)

          stats(8)). It is not on by default because it causes prob-
          lems on some laptops.

          Disable USB host controller detection.

          Disable specific USB host controller types.

          Disable nusbrc(8) startup at boot time.

          When defined, nusbrc(8) will use the dynamically assigned
          usb device address to name usb devices instead of the device
          unique name.

          These are used not by the kernel but by termrc (see
          cpurc(8)) when starting vga(8). If value is set to ask then
          the user is prompted for a choice on boot.

          This is used by the kernel to attach a pre-initialized lin-
          ear framebuffer that was setup by the bootloader or
          firmware.  The value has four space separated fields: the
          resolution and bitdepth of the screen, the color channel
          descriptor, the physical address of the framebuffer and a
          optional aperture size.
               *bootscreen=800x600x32 x8r8g8b8 0x80000000 0x001d4c00

          This is used to specify the screen blanking behavior of the
          MGA4xx video driver.  Values are standby, suspend, and off.
          The first two specify differing levels of power saving; the
          third turns the monitor off completely.

          This is used to specify an nvram device and optionally the
          length of the ram and read/write offset to use.  These val-
          ues are consulted by readnvram (see authsrv(2)). The most
          common use of the nvram is to hold a secstore(1) password
          for use by factotum(4).

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          This is used by the WORM file server kernel to locate a file
          holding information to configure the file system.  The file
          cannot live on a SCSI disk.  The default is fd!0!plan9.nvr
          (sic), unless bootfile is set, in which case it is plan9.nvr
          on the same disk as bootfile.  The syntax is either
          fd!unit!name or hd!unit!name where unit is the numeric unit
          id.  This variant syntax is a vestige of the file server
          kernel's origins.

          A representative plan9.ini:

               % cat /n/9fat:/plan9.ini
               serial0=type=generic port=0x3E8 irq=5

          9boot(8), booting(8), boot(8)

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